EndNote

EndNote is a reference management software that can be used on Windows and Macintosh computers. It allows you to create a collection of bibliographic records and files to use for your research and writing.

Export references to Covidence for screening and data extraction

You can export batches of references from EndNote to Covidence if you're using it for the screening, data extraction and quality assessment components of your high level literature review.

It's a two part process. First you export your EndNote references to a file. Then you import that file into Covidence.

Export your EndNote references to an XML file

Note: Your XML file must be created in EndNote for it to work in Covidence.

  1. Open your EndNote library.
  2. Select the references you wish to edit by clicking on a Group or Group Set in the left hand panel. (The Show Selected References command is no longer available in EndNote 20. You can only limit your reference selection by Group or Group Set.)
  3. Open the File menu and choose Export.
  4. In the Export file name window:
    • Save in: Use the drop down menu to select the folder to save the file in.
    • File name: Type a name for your file.
    • Save as type: Use the drop down menu to select XML (*.xml).
    • Output: Check the Output style box. Use the drop down menu to change this if it's not the referencing style you need.
    • Tick Export Selected References.
    • Click Save.
  5. Go to the folder you've chosen and check that the file has been saved there.

 

Import your XML file into Covidence

  1. Log into Covidence.
  2. Go to your review.
  3. Click Import Studies.
  4. Use the drop down menu, below Import in to, to select the folder you want the references to go into, e.g. Screen.
  5. In the next box down, click Browse and navigate to the EndNote XML file you created.
  6. Click Import.
    Your references should appear in Covidence, but it may a few minutes.

Use Change/Move/Copy Fields to organise batches of references

It is possible to edit a single field in a batch of selected references in one go. This can save you time when you are tidying up your library, or organising it to make it more searchable. For example you can:

  • Label a batch of references with the database you searched and the search terms you used to find them
  • Add a keyword, or group of keywords to a batch of references.
  • Replace the short 3 or 4 character code, e.g. c8h, with the full database name, e.g. Cinahl, for a batch of exported references.
  • Change a batch of references with titles in all capitals to titles in sentence case.

NOTE: This type of editing is not reversible, so use it with care.

Here are 2 examples of how this function can be used.

 

Add a keyword, or group of keywords to a batch of references

The Keyword field of an EndNote record is searchable. If you add keywords to your references, you can find them by searching your library for those keywords.

  1. Open your EndNote library.
  2. Select the references you wish to edit by clicking on a Group or Group Set in the left hand panel. (The Show Selected References command is no longer available in EndNote 20. You can only limit your reference selection by Group or Group Set.)
  3. Open the Library menu and choose Change/Move/Copy Fields. (In EndNote X9 it was the Tools menu.)
  4. The Change / Move copy fields window opens at the Change Fields tab. Select the Keyword field.
  5. For Change, choose Insert after a field’s text. If you insert the new words after any existing ones, you won’t be deleting information you want to keep, such as keywords you added previously, or keywords that came from the database record.
  6. Type the keywords you want to add to the field in the box beside the Change options. Separate keywords with semicolons, or enter them on separate lines. Click OK.
  7. A window will pop up asking for confirmation of the change. Click OK.
  8. Yet another window will pop up to confirm that the changes have been made. Click OK.
  9. Open one of the records and check the Keyword field to make sure the words have been added.

 

Label a batch of references with the database, search terms, and the date you searched

If you are doing a high level review, this use of the Change/Move/Copy Fields function can be useful in managing your search results, data mining and screening. If you label your references like this, you can generate a Subject Bibliography in EndNote that has the search details and the article abstracts in a single document. (See Create a subject bibliography.)

For this example, I’m using the Label field to record the database, search string and date searched. This field is never populated with data from database records, so I can safely use Replace Whole field with.

  1. Open your EndNote library.
  2. Select the references you wish to edit by clicking on a Group or Group Set in the left hand panel. (The Show Selected References command is no longer available in EndNote 20. You can only limit your reference selection by Group or Group Set.)
  3. Open the Library menu and choose Change/Move/Copy Fields. (In EndNote X9 it was the Tools menu.)
  4. The Change / Move copy fields window opens at the Change Fields tab. Select the Label field. For Change, choose Replace whole field.
  5. Type the name of the database, your search terms and limiters, and the date you searched into the text box beside the Change options. Click OK
  6. A window will pop up asking for confirmation of the change. Click OK.
  7. Yet another window will pop up to confirm that the changes have been made. Click OK.
  8. Open one of the records and check the Label field to make sure the words have been added.

NOTE: If you are using other fields such as Notes or Database, which are sometimes populated with information from the database record, it is a good idea to use either Insert after a field’s text or Insert before a field’s text. This keeps any text already in those fields and gives you the opportunity to review it.

Create an independent reference list

There are times when it is useful to have a list of references that isn’t linked to your writing. For example, you may want to send a list of references to your supervisor to see if you’re on the right track with your research.

You can create an independent reference list without using Cite While You Write. It is possible to select and copy formatted citations directly from your EndNote library into a blank document. The resulting list will not contain EndNote formatting, so there will be no direct links to your EndNote library.

  1. Open your EndNote library.
  2. Select the style you wish to edit, e.g. harvard-cqu.
    • You can select the referencing style from the Output Styles submenu of the tools menu.
    • OR you can select it in the output Styles box of the right-hand panel where you can see the summary of a record and edit it.
  3. Highlight the references you wish to include.
    (For EndNote X7, X8 and X9 you will also need to open the References menu in the tool bar and select Show Selected References. This hides the references you don’t need for your list.)
  4. Use Copy formatted to copy the references formatted in the chosen referencing style:
    • Right click on the highlighted references and select Copy Formatted from the menu, OR
    • Open the Reference menu and select Copy Formatted.
  5. Open a new document in Word.
  6. Paste the list into the document. A formatted reference list will appear.
  7. Save a copy of your list to your files.

Create a subject bibliography

Subject Bibliographies are lists of selected references grouped under the text entered into one or more fields in the records. Separate lists will appear for unique text in each field, e.g. if you have articles by 10 different primary authors, a Subject Bibliography on the Author field will have 10 headings – 1 for each author.

You can select any of the fields in an EndNote record for this function. However, it is only effective if you systematically record the data you are going to use to create the Subject Bibliography headings.

 

You can use a subject bibliography as the basis for your literature matrix for your review. Below is one example of how to do this.

Create a Subject Bibliography to organise your review

For this example, I'm using the Label field. See Use Change/Move/Copy Fields to organise batches of references for how to batch edit the Label field for use in a subject bibliography.

  1. Open your EndNote library.
  2. Set the referencing style to Annotated. This style appends the abstract to the reference in the bibliography.
  3. Select the references you wish to edit by clicking on a Group or Group Set in the left hand panel. (The Show Selected References command is no longer available in EndNote 20. You can only limit your reference selection by Group or Group Set.)
  4. Open the Tools menu and choose Subject Bibliography.
  5. Select the Label field and click OK.
  6. A Subject Terms window will open with a list of the terms in that field. Click Select All to use all of them. Click OK
  7. A subject bibliography will appear. References will be listed under the name of the database, search string, limiters and date searched. Abstracts will be included. Save the list.

You now have a full list of the references you found, complete with abstracts, and sorted by individual searches on specific dates. This list will be useful for the data extraction, screening and writing phases of your review.