EndNote

EndNote is a reference management software that can be used on Windows and Macintosh computers. It allows you to create a collection of bibliographic records and files to use for your research and writing.

Use Groups to organise your references

You can use groups and groups sets to organise your references by categories of your choosing. Groups can be added, deleted and changed without affecting the All References area of your library. References can belong to multiple groups. All references belong to the All References group as well as whichever groups you assign them to. Group Sets act like a subject heading to place your groups under.

Create a Group

From the Menu bar:

  1. Open the Groups menu and select Create Group.
  2. Type a name for the group in the box that opens in the Groups Pane on the left.

OR

From the Group Pane on the left:

  1. Right click on My Groups and select Create Group from the menu.
  2. Type a name for the group in the box that opens in the Groups Pane on the left.

 

Add a reference to a Group

  1. Highlight/select the reference/s in the library window.
  2. Drag and drop selected references into the group.

OR

  1. Highlight/select the reference/s in the library window.
  2. Open the Groups menu and select Add References To.
  3. Select the name of the group from the sub-menu.

OR

  1. Highlight/select the reference/s in the library window
  2. Right‐click on the reference/s and go to Add References in the menu.
  3. Select the group from the sub-menu.

 

Remove a reference from a Group

This will only remove the group association. The reference itself will not be deleted from your library.

  1. Highlight the reference in the main library panel.
  2. Open the Groups menu and select Remove References from Group
    OR Right click on the reference and select Remove References from Group from the menu.
  3. You’ll be asked to confirm that you do want to remove the reference from the group. Click Yes.

 

Create a Smart Group

Smart Groups are groups that have an inbuilt search query. When a new reference is added to your library, it is checked against the search query. If it matches, it is automatically added to the smart group.

  1. Select Create Smart Group from the Groups menu.
  2. Type a name into the Smart Group Name box.
  3. Use the search boxes to create the search query that EndNote uses to automatically populate this group.
  4. Click Create.
  5. You will see that this new group has appeared in the Groups pane, and EndNote has added all of your references that meet the search criteria. Click on the Smart Group Name to open the group and view the references added to it.

Use Group Sets to organise your groups

Create a Group Set

From the Menu bar:

  1. Open the Groups menu and select Create Group Set.
  2. Type a name for the group set in the box that opens in the Groups Pane on the left.

OR

From the Group Pane on the left:

  1. Right click on My Groups and select Create Group Set from the menu.
  2. Type a name for the group set in the box that opens in the Groups Pane on the left.

 

Add an existing Group to a Group Set

  1. Highlight a Group.
  2. Drag and drop it into the Group Set.

 

Create a new Group within a Group Set

  1. Click on the name of the Group Set in the Groups Pane.
  2. Open the Groups menu and select Create Group.
  3. Type a name for the group / group set in the box that opens under the Group Set name.

Alternatively, you can right click on the Group Set, select Create Group from the menu, and type a name for the new group.

Rename a Group or Group Set

Rename a Group, Smart Group or Group Set

  1. Right click on the Group, Smart Group or Group Set name.
  2. Select Rename Group from the menu that pops up.
  3. Click in the box edit the text as needed or delete it and type a new name.
  4. Click somewhere else on the EndNote library screen to close the box. The updated Group, Smart Group or Group Set name will automatically save.

 

Rename a group with the total number of results (for a high level review)

For most types of High Level Review, you will need the original number of search results for each database for your PRISMA flowchart. (It needs to be done before you remove duplicates and articles that don't match your inclusion criteria.)

You will usually start with a Group named for each database you are using. When you have run the search and exported the results, you can rename the group to add the total number of exported results on the end. It's an easy way to keep track of the numbers.

  1. Right click on the group name
  2. Select Rename Group from the menu that pops up.
  3. Click in the box and type the number in brackets at the end.
  4. Click somewhere else on the EndNote library screen to close the box. The updated group name will automatically save.

Dealing with duplicate references

EndNote can cross check references of the same type and identify pairs with multiple matching fields, using Find Duplicates. There are defaults set for this function, but you can set your own preferences for dealing with duplicates.

Setting duplicate handling preferences

There are several fields available for comparison: Author, Year, Title, Secondary Title (=Journal Title), Volume, Issue, Pages, Section, Publisher, Place Published, Tertiary Title, Short Title, Subsidiary Author, Reference Type, Label. Choose the ones that best suit your own needs.

  1. Open the Edit menu and select Preferences
  2. Click Duplicates in the menu of the EndNote Preferences window.
  3. Go to Compare references based on the following fields. The defaults are Author, Year, Title, and Reference Type.
    • Tick the fields you want EndNote to compare.
    • Untick the fields you don’t want to compare.
  4. Under Criteria, choose between:
    • Exact Match – This will look for an exact match, so if, for example, you have 2 records for the same article, but one has the title in sentence case and the other has each word capitalised, EndNote won’t recognise them as duplicates.
    • Ignore spacing and punctuation – This is the default. EndNote will match the words regardless of how they are formatted.
  5. Under Online Search Results, choose whether to keep or automatically discard duplicates. If you allow duplicates to be imported, you can compare the records later using the Find Duplicates option.
  6. Click Apply to apply your choices.
  7. Click OK to close the window.

 

Find Duplicates

Use this function to identify duplicate references in your library and deal with them. It will only compare pairs of references.

  1. Open EndNote.
  2. Select the All References group so that EndNote will search you whole library for duplicates.
  3. Open the References menu from the toolbar and select Find Duplicates. EndNote will scan your records.
  4. If you have duplicate references, a Find Duplicates window will open. One pair of duplicates will be displayed side by side for you to compare. The fields that are different will be highlighted. You can copy unique text from the fields of the least complete record to the most complete one.
  5. Choose what you want EndNote to do with these records. You have 3 options:
    • Keep this record: This keeps the chosen record and deletes the other one. If there is unique, useful information in the record you are not keeping, copy it and paste it into the record you are keeping first.
    • Skip: This keeps both records and puts them in a temporary Duplicates group so that you can go back and look at them later. This is useful if you have 3 or more duplicate records for the same reference.
    • Cancel: This tells EndNote to delete the most recently added version of the record.
  6. When you have decided on one set of duplicates, the next set will appear for you to review. Continue working through the duplicates one set at a time.

When you delete the unwanted duplicate records, they go into the Trash group. To remove them completely, right click on Trash in the Groups pane and select Empty Trash. Please note: The Empty Trash function cannot be undone.

 

Working in the temporary Duplicates group

If you have 3 or more duplicate records for a single reference, and each has unique information in the additional fields, the temporary duplicates group is useful. It allows you to go through the records and copy the unique information from the duplicates into the one record you want to keep. Then you can manually delete the duplicates without losing anything useful.

  1. Open each record for the reference and evaluate the data entered into the fields.
  2. Use the record number to identify the most complete and accurate version. This is the one to keep.
  3. Open each of the other duplicates in turn. Copy the unique information you wish to keep into a blank document.
  4. Close each record as you finish with it.
  5. Open the version you are keeping. Paste the unique information into the relevant fields.
  6. Save the changes to the record.
  7. Double check each record to make sure that you have all of the information you need.
  8. Delete the unwanted duplicates.
  9. Repeat this for the remaining sets of duplicate records in the Duplicates group.

Annotate the PDFs in your library

You can annotate the PDF attachments in your EndNote library. The options are:

  • Sticky Note – Use this to add comments to the PDF, just like using a paper sticky note.
  • Highlight Text – Use this to highlight selected text in yellow
  • Underline Text – Use this to underline sections of text
  • Strikethrough Text – Use this to strikethrough or cross out sections of text

 

Annotate a PDF attached to an EndNote record

  1. Double click a record in your EndNote library to open the Summary/Edit panel.
  2. Click the small v at the right-hand end of the file attachment in the Summary Tab to open the action menu for the file attachment.
  3. Select Open to open the built in PDF viewer/editor in a separate window.
  4. Click the Markup/annotation icon beside the magnifying glass icon in the top left to open the annotation menu.
  5. Annotate your PDF
    • Highlight, underline or strikethrough (cross out) text in the PDF
      • Click the relevant icon.
      • Use your mouse or touchpad to select the text you want to highlight, underline or cross out.
    • Add a sticky note to the PDF
      • Click the Sticky Note icon.
      • Click the place in the text where you wish to add the note.
      • Double click the Sticky Note icon to open it and type your note/comment.
      • Click the small cross in the top right corner of the Sticky Note to close it.
  6. Save the changes to the PDF when you close it.

NOTE: Sticky notes can’t be moved around the document. They stay where you first put them.

 

Remove sticky notes, highlighting, underlining or strikethrough text

  1. Right click on the sticky note or section of highlighting, underlining or strikethrough text you want to remove.
  2. Select Delete Annotation from the bottom of the pop-up menu.
  3. Save the changes to the EndNote record when you close it.

Searching within your EndNote library

You can search within your EndNote library for specific references. Search on words that have been added to any of the fields of a record, as well as within the text of PDF attachments. There are additional things you can search on such as when you added the record to your library.

 

Simple Search

You can do a basic keyword search in the Simple Search box on the home page of your library.

  1. Type in your word into the simple search box.
  2. Click the magnifying glass or hit enter. The search results will display below the search box.

 

Advanced Search

If you need to do a more complicated search, you’ll need to open the advanced search panel.

  1. Click Advanced search to open this function.
  2. Select the field you wish to search, e.g. All fields / Keywords / Notes, on the left.
  3. Type the words to search for into the box to the right of the chosen field.
  4. Click Search. Your results will appear below the search panel.