EndNote

EndNote is a particular brand of content management software. It allows people to store bibliographic references in files that are referred to as libraries. Endnote can be used on Windows and Macintosh computers.

Insert a footnote

The Cite While You Write (CWYW) function allows you to insert references from your Endnote library into a Word document while you are writing. You can add these references as footnotes.

  1. Open your document.
  2. Choose the referencing style you need to use in the EndNote toolbar in Word.
  3. Insert your cursor where you want to add the in-text marker for the footnote.
  4. Go to the References toolbar in Word.
  5. Click Insert footnote. This will move your cursor into the document footer.
  6. Go to the EndNote toolbar and click Insert Citation.
  7. Choose Insert Citation from the drop-down menu
  8. The Find & Insert My References window will open. Type the author's surname, or some words from the title, or some keywords in the search box at the top left. Click Find.
  9. Select the correct reference from the list of possible matches that appear below the search box.
  10. Click Insert.
  11. A marker will appear in your document where the cursor was, e.g. 1. The numbered footnote will appear in the footer of the document. A full reference list will also appear at the end of the document unless you've edited the template to exclude this list.

Edit a footnote to add a page number

  1. Click on the footnote in the footer of the document to highlight it.
  2. Go to the EndNote toolbar.
  3. Click Edit & Manage Citations.
  4. Make sure the correct reference is highlighted in the Edit & Manage Citations window.
  5. Go to the Edit Citation section in the lower half of the window.
  6. The page number goes at the end of the citation, so it's added as a suffix. You need to add all of the necessary punctuation, including spaces yourself. EndNote will not automatically add them in. For example, type a comma space p. space and the number 7, to make it appear at the end of the footnote as , p. 7
  7. Click OK to close the Edit & Manage Citations window. Back in your document, the footnote will now include the page number.
  8. Save the changes to your document.

Delete a footnote

Never delete footnote citations by using the delete or backspace keys. It can corrupt your document. You need to remove the formatting that links the citation in your document with the matching record in your EndNote library. Removing a footnote is a 2 part process. First, remove the EndNote citation from the document footer. Second, remove the in-text marker for the footnote from the paragraph it’s in.

To safely delete a footnote:

  1. Go to the footer of your Word document.
  2. Click on the citation beside the footnote number to highlight it.
  3. Go to the EndNote toolbar.
  4. Click on Edit & Manage Citations.
  5. Make sure the correct reference is highlighted in the Edit & Manage Citations window.
  6. Open the drop down menu for Edit Reference.
  7. Select Remove citation. This removes the text of the footnote, the reference in the bibliography if you have one, and the associated EndNote formatting.
  8. Click OK to close the Edit & Manage Citations window.
  9. Next find the number for that footnote in the paragraph.
  10. Delete the number with either the delete or backspace key. You’ll need to hit the key twice – once to highlight the number and the second time to delete it. This removes the number from in-text and from the footer. Word will renumber the footnotes as needed.
  11. Save the changes to your document.

Formatting your footnotes using the templates in EndNote

You can choose the way your footnotes are formatted by EndNote. You can also choose whether or not to have a separate reference list at the end of your document or note. Turabian 9th Footnote is used for this example, but you can also use other styles.

  1. Go to EndNote
  2. Select the style you wish to edit in the Bibliographic Output Styles box in the toolbar, e.g. Turabian 9th Footnote.
  3. Open the Edit menu.
  4. Go to Output styles and choose Edit “Turabian 9th Footnote” from the submenu.
  5. Click on Templates under Footnotes in the left-hand menu of the Output style window. This gives you a number of options for formatting footnotes.

Part 1 – Do you want a reference list at the end as well as footnotes?

  1. Untick the Include citations in bibliography box, under Format citations in footnotes, if you don’t want a separate reference list to appear at the end of your document in addition to all the footnotes at the bottom of each page.

Part 2 – Standard footnotes

  1. Use the Format citations in footnotes drop down menu to choose from one of the 3 available formats:
  • Same as bibliography: EndNote will format the footnotes to match the references in your bibliography / reference list.
  • Same as citations: EndNote will format the footnotes like in-text citations, e.g. (Smith, 2017). **If you are using a footnote style like Turabian 9th Footnote, you will need to create the Citation templates if you want to use this option.
  • Using footnote format: EndNote will format the references using the Reference Types templates in the lower part of the Footnote Template window. You can edit these templates.

Part 3 – Footnote format for when you quote the same source twice in a row
If you cite the same source more than once without other sources in between, you still insert a footnote, but it’s often formatted differently from the first instance. Ibid. (“in the same place”) is the default, but check your referencing guide in case it asks for something different. Example of Ibid used in the footnotes:

  1. Go to Repeated Citations under Footnotes in the left-hand menu of the Output style window. There are 2 sections to fill in
  • If the same reference repeats in consecutive citations: (For when exactly the same reference is used twice in a row or more.)
    • Replace repeated data with: e.g. Ibid.|,oCited Pages. You can use the default for the style you’ve chosen, or create your own template using the Insert Field menu to choose the parts of the reference to display.
    • Omit repeated data: EndNote will leave the footnote blank except for the number
    • Use short form: EndNote will format the references using the Generic – Short form template in the Reference Type templates in the Footnote Templates window, e.g. Author, "Title"|,oCited Pages|. You can edit this template if needed.
  • If the same source repeats in consecutive citations: (Source is used here for publications that are a collection of smaller sections by different authors. These settings will tell EndNote what you want if, for example, you are quoting from 2 different articles from the same journal.)
    • Replace repeated data with: e.g. Ibid. This replaces the book or article title with Ibid. You can use this default, or change the text to match the requirements of your referencing style if that is different.
    • Replace only the secondary title: If you have consecutive references from books in a series or articles from the same journal, EndNote will replace the series or journal title with Ibid. if you tick this box.
    • No special handling: EndNote will insert full footnotes for each citation.
  1. Save the amendments to the style and name your new version of the style leaving the original style name at the beginning, e.g. Turabian 9th Footnote_edited. It will be saved to the Styles folder in your documents.
  2. To use the style, choose Select Another Style in the Bibliographic Output Style box and select your new style from the list.

 

NOTE: When you edit a style, your new version is saved to the Styles folder on the computer you are working on. If you want to use that same edited style with EndNote on another computer, you will need to transfer a copy of the edited style to the other computer, install it, and select it.

Converting in-text citations to footnotes

You can change referencing styles in your Word document by selecting another style and updating your citations and bibliography. However, you can't change referencing formats this way. If you have been formatting your references as in-text citations, switching to the footnote format requires a bit of extra work. For a small number of references, maybe a dozen or fewer, you can easily work through the document to remove each in-text citation and replace it with a footnote. For longer documents with larger reference lists, you can use a Word macro to enable the conversion. PLEASE NOTE that this is an advanced technique.

For more information see Clarivate's community conversation on Converting in-text citations to footnotes/endnotes. It has the macro coding and instructions for creating the macro in Word using Windows 7. For Windows 10, you can run the new macro from the View Macros window. The new intext2footnote macro will appear at the end of the list there.