EndNote

EndNote is a reference management software that can be used on Windows and Macintosh computers. It allows you to create a collection of bibliographic records and files to use for your research and writing.

To edit, or not to edit?

The Output Style is file that tells EndNote how to display citations, footnotes and references for a specific referencing style.

  • The Citation templates determine how your in text citations appear, for example author name/s and year in brackets, or superscript numbers.
  • The Bibliography templates determine how your references appear in your reference list.
  • The Footnote templates determine how your footnotes will be formatted. You can also decide whether or not to have a separate reference list at the end of your document as well as footnotes.
  • There are additional sections to set the formatting for elements like Author names, Anonymous works and Figures and Tables.

 

If you have a lot of references of a particular type and the existing template is not working the way you need it to, it may be worth investing time in learning how to edit the style. Your template will usually have to work for multiple types, e.g. the Report reference type needs to work for both print and online reports, as well as allowing for reports with numbers or those in a named series and more.

You need to be aware that editing the style might not fix all of the issues you have with it. You might still need to make some changes to your document after you convert it to plain text for submission. For examples of things that need to be edited after plain text conversion see:

An overview of how to edit the bibliographic template of an output style

These are the basic steps and information for editing the bibliographic template for a style. For this example I am using APA 6th. You can edit other styles following the same process. If you edit the Footnote templates to match the Bibliography templates your edited style can be used for either in-text citations or footnotes.

  1. Open your EndNote library.
  2. Select the style you wish to edit in the Bibliographic Output Styles box in the Summary Panel of a record, e.g. Vancouver. (For endnote X9 and earlier it's in the toolbar just under the menu bar at the top right of the library.)
  3. Open the Tools menu, and go down to Output Styles. Choose Edit "selected output style", e.g. Edit “Vancouver”, from the submenu. (For Endnote X9 start by opening the Edit menu.)
  4. Click on Templates under Bibliography in the left hand menu of the Output Style window.
  5. This opens the templates for the reference types. Click on the reference type you wish to change.
  6. Use the delete or backspace keys to delete the field names you don't want displayed in your reference.
  7. Click on Insert Field to bring up the menu of options for editing the reference type. Use this to add any fields that you want displayed in your reference. You will have to add each field separately.
  8. Format the field names to determine the way they appear in the reference list:
    • Bold text, Italics, Underlining, Superscript or Subscript: Select / highlight the field name and use the icons in the toolbar of the template editing window, or use keyboard shortcuts for bold, italics and underlining. For example to italicise the title, highlight the field name Title and click CTRL+I to italicise it, so it looks like Title in the template.
    • Spaces: Use the space bar to add a space between field names where they are required in the reference.
    • Punctuation: To add single or double quotation marks, brackets and other punctuation, type the required punctuation beside or around the field name as you want it to appear in the reference, e.g. Vol(Iss) for 5(1)
    • Make the punctuation disappear if the field is empty: Use the Forced Separation character to make sure that the punctuation preceding a field name only appears when that field is populated in the record for a reference. For example some journals only have volume numbers, so you only want the volume number and page numbers to show in the reference. You don't want the punctuation for the Issue field to appear. It might look a bit like this in the template, Volume|(Issue)|, Pages|. For a reference with both volume and issue numbers, this would give you, e.g. 5(1), 17-30. For a journal with no issue number, you would get 5, 17-30.
    • Automatically link words or abbreviations to a field: If you want EndNote to add text before or after a part of a reference, e.g. pp. in front of the page numbers, use Link Associated Text. Leave no space between the associated text, the Link Associated Text character and the field name, e.g pp.oPages
    • When the linked text needs to change for single or plural variations: Sometimes associated text needs to allow for both one or multiple entries, e.g. if you have one editor you might need (ed), but for 2 or more editors you might need (eds). Use the Plural character to enable this, e.g. Editoro(ed)^(eds).
    • When the linked text is the same as the field name: If the associated text is the same as the field name, use the Accent Grave character on your keyboard to avoid confusing the software, e.g. `doi:`oDOI
  9. Save the amendments to the style and name your new version of the style leaving the original style name at the beginning, e.g. APA6th_edited. It will be saved to the Styles folder in your documents.
  10. To use the style, choose Select Another Style in the Bibliographic Output Style box and select your new style from the list.

 

NOTE: When you edit a style, your new version is saved to the Styles folder on the computer you are working on. If you want to use that same edited style with EndNote on another computer, you will need to transfer a copy of the edited style to the other computer, install it, and select it.

Special characters for editing output styles

EndNote has special formatting characters for editing and creating the bibliographic templates of Output Styles. These characters are in drop down a menu in the style editing window. They give you more flexibility and control over how text and punctuation appear in the finished references.

This is an example of the special characters used in the bibliography template for a Journal Article. The tiny dot between field names is a space. It's not a special character. It appears when you hit the space bar.

Author‧Year,‧'Title'|,‧reviewoofoReviewed‧Item|,‧Journal,‧vol.oVolume|,‧no.oIssue|,‧p.^pp.oPages.

 

Forced Separation |

There are times when a field may not be used. This character is put in front of the field it is controlling. It tells EndNote to only display that field’s text, and the punctuation that introduces it, if that field is populated in the record.

For example use Volume| (Issue)|, in the Bibliography or Footnote template so that your reference or footnote displays this part as 5 (3), if there are both volume and issue numbers, OR 5, if there is only a volume number. (Without the forced separation, you'd have an unwanted space between the 5 and the comma if there were no issue number.)

 

Link Adjacent Text o

This character is used to automatically add descriptive text before or after the text in the Field of the record. Make sure there are no spaces between this character, the text, and the field name. If there are multiple variations on the text that could be used, for example with the different types of reports and ways of numbering them, it might be best not to specify any adjacent text. Add the full details to that field in the individual records instead.

For example use Editionoedn in the Bibliography or Footnote template so that your reference or footnote displays the edition as 3rd edn. (You'd type 2nd, 3rd 4th etc. into the edition field)
Or use cat.ono.oCatalogue Number in the template to get cat. no. 4344.0.55.006.

For EndNote X9 and earlier, this character was ❖

 

Singular / plural ^

When the linked text can be either singular or plural use this character between the variations. EndNote will attach the appropriate version to the text from the field.

For example use p.^pp.oPages. in the Bibliography or Footnote template so that your reference or footnote displays the page numbers as p.5. OR pp.112-136.
Or use Editoro(ed)^(eds) in the template to get Smith, J (ed) OR Jones, B & Brown, Q (eds).

 

Accent Grave `

When the linked text is identical to the Field name (same words), use the Accent Grave on your keyboard. Place one at either end of the linked text that matches the field name.

For example use `doi`:oDOI in the Bibliography or Footnote template so that your reference or footnote displays the DOI as doi:10.4226/145/59c9b2448242c

Editing APA 7th

Unlike other output styles, the APA 7th style file does not prompt you to save changes as a separate file with a modified name. It overwrites the original style file with the modifications you have made. To make a modified version of APA 7th, e.g. if you lecturer or supervisor wants you to use a numbered version of the style, make a copy of the style and modify that.

Create a copy for editing and save it to your library

  1. Download a second copy of the APA 7th opens in a new window style.
  2. Save it to Downloads and rename it. It's a good idea to use your name/initials or a feature of the editing you will be doing, e.g. APA 7th Tom, or APA 7th numbered.
  3. Move the renamed file to the Styles folder in your EndNote folder.
  4. Double click on the new style file to open it with EndNote.
  5. Open the File menu in the EndNote library toolbar. Select Save As.
  6. Select Save.
  7. Click Select Another Style in the output style box.
  8. Browse the list or use the quick search to locate the your new.
  9. Highlight your renamed style, e.g. APA 7th Tom, and click Choose. The new style will appear in the Output styles box in the toolbar.

You can now edit the renamed copy of the style file as needed while preserving the original APA 7th style file for when you need it.

Formatting your footnotes using the templates in EndNote

You can choose the way your footnotes are formatted by EndNote. You can also choose whether or not to have a separate reference list at the end of your document or note. Turabian 9th Footnote is used for this example, but you can also use other styles.

  1. Go to EndNote
  2. Select the style you wish to edit in the Bibliographic Output Styles box in the toolbar, e.g. Turabian 9th Footnote.
  3. Open the Edit menu.
  4. Go to Output styles and choose Edit “Turabian 9th Footnote” from the submenu.
  5. Click on Templates under Footnotes in the left-hand menu of the Output style window. This gives you a number of options for formatting footnotes.

Part 1 – Do you want a reference list at the end as well as footnotes?

  1. Untick the Include citations in bibliography box, under Format citations in footnotes, if you don’t want a separate reference list to appear at the end of your document in addition to all the footnotes at the bottom of each page.

Part 2 – Standard footnotes

  1. Use the Format citations in footnotes drop down menu to choose from one of the 3 available formats:
  • Same as bibliography: EndNote will format the footnotes to match the references in your bibliography / reference list.
  • Same as citations: EndNote will format the footnotes like in-text citations, e.g. (Smith, 2017). **If you are using a footnote style like Turabian 9th Footnote, you will need to create the Citation templates if you want to use this option.
  • Using footnote format: EndNote will format the references using the Reference Types templates in the lower part of the Footnote Template window. You can edit these templates.

Part 3 – Footnote format for when you quote the same source twice in a row
If you cite the same source more than once without other sources in between, you still insert a footnote, but it’s often formatted differently from the first instance. Ibid. (“in the same place”) is the default, but check your referencing guide in case it asks for something different.

  1. Go to Repeated Citations under Footnotes in the left-hand menu of the Output style window. There are 2 sections to fill in
  • If the same reference repeats in consecutive citations: (For when exactly the same reference is used twice in a row or more.)
    • Replace repeated data with: e.g. Ibid.|,oCited Pages. You can use the default for the style you’ve chosen, or create your own template using the Insert Field menu to choose the parts of the reference to display.
    • Omit repeated data: EndNote will leave the footnote blank except for the number
    • Use short form: EndNote will format the references using the Generic – Short form template in the Reference Type templates in the Footnote Templates window, e.g. Author, "Title"|,oCited Pages|. You can edit this template if needed.
  • If the same source repeats in consecutive citations: (Source is used here for publications that are a collection of smaller sections by different authors. These settings will tell EndNote what you want if, for example, you are quoting from 2 different articles from the same journal.)
    • Replace repeated data with: e.g. Ibid. This replaces the book or article title with Ibid. You can use this default, or change the text to match the requirements of your referencing style if that is different.
    • Replace only the secondary title: If you have consecutive references from books in a series or articles from the same journal, EndNote will replace the series or journal title with Ibid. if you tick this box.
    • No special handling: EndNote will insert full footnotes for each citation.
  1. Save the amendments to the style and name your new version of the style leaving the original style name at the beginning, e.g. Turabian 9th Footnote_edited. It will be saved to the Styles folder in your documents.
  2. To use the style, choose Select Another Style in the Bibliographic Output Style box and select your new style from the list.

 

NOTE: When you edit a style, your new version is saved to the Styles folder on the computer you are working on. If you want to use that same edited style with EndNote on another computer, you will need to transfer a copy of the edited style to the other computer, install it, and select it.