EndNote

EndNote is a particular brand of content management software. It allows people to store bibliographic references in files that are referred to as libraries. Endnote can be used on Windows and Macintosh computers.

Edit the style to remove author initials from in-text citations

If you have 2 or more authors with the same last name, EndNote will add author initials to the citation to distinguish between them. If full author names are not entered consistently in your references, you will find that initials will appear in-text even when you are quoting different works by the same author. See Remove author initials from in-text citations on the Insert, edit and delete citations page of this guide. The first 2 parts of the process for removing author initials from in-text citations are here.

If tidying up all of the author names in your Author Terms List and individual records doesn't fix this issue, and you do not want any initials in the citations in your document, you can edit the output style to turn off this feature.

 

In EndNote:

  1. Open your EndNote library.
  2. Select the style you wish to edit in the Output Style box in the toolbar, e.g. APA 6th.
  3. Click on Edit in the toolbar, and go down to Output Styles in the drop down menu.
  4. This opens a sub menu. Choose Edit “chosen style”, e.g. Edit “APA 6th”. This will open the style edit window.
  5. Select Ambiguous Citations, under Citations in the left-hand menu. Uncheck the box that reads Include author initials or full name in citation.
  6. Select Author Name, under Citations in the left-hand menu. Uncheck the box that reads Use initials only for primary authors with the same name.
  7. To save changes go to File. Select Save As and give the style a new name e.g. APA_edited
  8. Close the edit window.

 

In Word:

  1. Go to the EndNote toolbar and select the newly edited style in the Style box.
  2. Then click the EndNote Update Citations and Bibliography command to reformat the references in your document using the amended output style.

 

A printable copy of the instructions for: Removing author initials from in-text citations (PDF). This includes all 3 parts of the process.

Edit the style to use superscript numbers for in-text citations

You can modify the citation templates of any style to use superscript numbers for in-text citations. If you are already using a numbered style, you only need to modify the Citation template. For other styles, edit both the Citation template and the Bibliography layout. Choose the style you need for your reference list. For these examples, I’ve used APA 6th and Vancouver.

 

Edit the citation template (Windows)

  1. Open your EndNote library.
  2. Select the style you wish to edit in the Bibliographic Output Styles box in the toolbar, e.g. APA 6th.
  3. Click on Edit in the toolbar, and go down to Output Styles in the drop down menu.
  4. This opens a sub menu. Choose Edit “APA 6th”.     
  5. Click on Citations in the left hand menu of the APA 6th Style window. Delete the existing text from the field for Citation on the right.
  6. Click Insert Field and choose Bibliographic Number from the menu
  7. Highlight Bibliographic Number and the A1 superscript icon to select superscript as the format. The text will appear as superscript in that field once you’ve done this.
  8. Next, to get matching numbers in your bibliography, go to the Layout section under Bibliography.
  9. Insert your cursor in the Start each reference with box.
  10. Open the Insert Field menu above on the right, and choose Bibliography Number.
  11. Insert your cursor after Bibliography Number in the Start each reference with box and add any punctuation your style requires.
  12. Spacing – you will need to put at least one space between the number and the reference:
    • Use the spacebar to add a single space, or to add a specific number of spaces.
    • Choose Tab from the Insert field menu to insert a Tab space.
  13. Save the amendments to the style and name your new version of the style, e.g. APA 6th superscript. It will be saved to the Styles folder in your documents on your computer.

 

Edit the citation template (Mac)

  1. Open your EndNote library.
  2. Select the style you wish to edit in the Output Style box in the toolbar, e.g. Vancouver.
  3. Click on Edit in the toolbar, and go down to Output Styles in the drop down menu.
  4. This opens a sub menu. Choose Edit “chosen style”, e.g. Edit “Vancouver”.          
  5. Click on Citations in the left hand menu of the Style window. Delete the existing text from Citation field on the right.
  6. Click Insert Field and choose Bibliographic Number from the menu
  7. Highlight the words Bibliographic Number in that field
  8. Open the Edit menu from the toolbar. Go to Font and choose Superscript.
  9. Next, to get matching numbers in your bibliography, go to the Layout section under Bibliography.
  10. Insert your cursor in the Start each reference with box.
  11. Open the Insert Field menu above on the right, and choose Bibliography Number.
  12. Insert your cursor after Bibliography Number in the Start each reference with box and add any punctuation your style requires.
  13. Spacing – you will need to put at least one space between the number and the reference:
    • Use the spacebar to add a single space, or to add a specific number of spaces.
    • Choose Tab from the Insert field menu to insert a Tab space.
  14. Save the amendments to the style and name your new version of the style, e.g. Vancouver superscript. It will be saved to the Styles folder in your documents on your computer.

 

Use the modified style

  • In EndNote: Choose Select Another Style in the Output Style box and select your new style from the list.
  • In Word: Go to the EndNote toolbar and select the style from drop down menu in Styles box. Use the Select another style option if the style is not already in the list.

Edit the style to display figures in the body of the document

The referencing style you have chosen may be set up to create a List of Figures at the end of your document, as in the example below. If you want your figures to appear in text, but your figure is not appearing at the point in the text where you tried to insert it, you will need to edit the style.

For this example I am using APA 6th. You can edit any style you choose.

  1. Open your EndNote library.
  2. Select the style you wish to edit in the Bibliographic Output Styles box in the toolbar, e.g. APA 6th.
  3. Click on Edit in the menu, and go down to Output Styles from the drop down menu.
  4. This opens a sub menu. Choose Edit "APA 6th".
  5. Click on Figures near the bottom of the left hand menu of the APA 6th Style window.
  6. Tick the radio button for Insert figures in-text near the reference to the figure, under Placement.
  7. Tick the radio button for whichever placement you prefer for your Captions.
  8. Go to Separation & Punctuation to set preferences for spacing around Figures, and punctuation for Captions.
  9. Save the amendments to the style and name your new version of the style. It will be saved to the Styles folder in your documents.
  10. To use the style, choose Select Another Style in the Bibliographic Output Style box and select your new style from the list.